Samoan also has a polite variant used in formal communication and a colloquial form used in daily communication. You can download this cultural profile in an easy-to-read PDF A Samoan becomes the Matai of a village through the complex and sophisticated hierarchical Matai system, which includes an election by consensus. Genealogies and legends are often passed down and elaborated through the generations. Smoking Many New Zealand-born Samoans exploring alternatives take on the PI (Pacific Island) identity. Cooperation and consensus are also common principles that influence interactions with others. Samoans in NZ keep culture alive From Dateline Pacific, 4:01 am on 29 May 2017 Samoans living in New Zealand continue to practice many of their cultural traditions but not without challenges. In contemporary Australia, the size of the Samoan community may be underestimated due to migration via New Zealand. Samoan society is based on a collectivist system of governance known as ‘fa’a Matai’. Some have learnt it through their jobs, or by helping their elders deal with schools and government authorities. Other articles where Samoan is discussed: American Samoa: People: …(more than nine-tenths) is ethnically Samoan; there are tiny minorities of Tongan and Filipino origin and of people of mixed ethnicity. For them, proficiency in the language distinguishes those who are truly Samoan. The second type of matai are the Tulafale, the talking chiefs, who usually fulfil the many oral traditions and duties within fa’a Samoa. The New Zealand Government supports Samoa to foster economic development and adapt to and mitigate the impacts of climate change. The Tulafale are often known as the mouthpieces of the Ali’i and are expected to be skilled in the art of lauga (oration). A New Zealand-based Samoan chief has been sentenced to 11 years in prison for human trafficking and using 13 of his countrymen as slaves over a 25-year period. A number have also ventured into pr… In 1998 one New Zealand-born Samoan described what it means to follow fa‘asamoa: ‘The fa‘asamoa is: go to church, be a good Samoan, and that means to try your best at education, and looking after family, and go to family functions, plus that we've got to look after them when they're old.’ 1. In 2001, 64% of ethnic Samoan New Zealanders were able to speak the Samoan language. The Matai was traditionally male, but nowadays women can gain leadership status. About 30 ethnic Samoans, many from American Samoa, currently play in the NFL. The legal age for buying alcohol in New Zealand is 18. The three main pillars of Fa’a Samoa are the matai (chiefs), aiga (extended family), and the Christian church. Misatauveve Melani Anae, 'Samoans - Culture and identity', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/samoans/page-3 (accessed 6 February 2021), Story by Misatauveve Melani Anae, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 25 Mar 2015. Matai are responsible for administrative duties and maintaining traditions and customs of the village. Conversely, Apia (the capital city) contains approximately one-fifth of Samoa’s population. For example, Christian values and beliefs that were brought to the island in the 19th century have been integrated into fa’a Samoa. The relative quiet of New Zealand's wartime administration was shattered by a devastating influenza pandemic in November 1918, which killed approximately 8500 Samoans, about 22% of the population.For survivors, the disaster, and especially the administration's bumbling response to it, was seared into memory. You will be redirected to our payment portal. Modern-day Samoans are often friendly and respectful people who are proud of their heritage. fa‘alavelave (ceremonial and other family obligations). This was retrieved from the To be a Taupou, the woman is generally connected to the family or village by blood and is the daughter of an Ali’i. The bulk of the research was carried out in the Christchurch area over the period of a year. For example, being hospitable to friends, family and new acquaintances is very common and valued. 2 Samoan society is generally free of ethnic tension, largely as a result of homogeneity and a history of intermarriage that has … "And because there is a large number of Samoans now living in Auckland, so they need to embrace their culture. format that can be printed out and accessed at any time. We have a drinking culture in New Zealand, but it is fine to have non-alcoholic drinks when you are socialising. Each tatau is unique, containing geometrical patterns and embedded symbols as well as carrying special meanings for the wearer of the tatau. A diverse, growing population Samoan is the largest of the Pacific ethnic groups The way in which one honours their family varies depending on their relationship and status with others. In Census 2013, over a third (35.7 percent) of Pacific peoples were aged under 15 years, compared with only a fifth (20.4 percent) of the total population In Samoa there’s a ‘third gender’ – the Fa’afafine. ›. Nearly all tatau relate to an individual’s ancestry; thus, it is believed that by wearing the tatau, one is respecting and upholding their family and heritage. Supply of alcohol to under-18s | Health Promotion Agency. Leilani Momoisea reports: In the village area, local law prevails, which can vary from village to village. A young New Zealand Samoan man called Adam (Neil Amituanai) ventures to his motherland to try and impress his crush Mary (Gloria Ofa Blake), who claims she only likes "real" Pacific Island men. Director: Stallone Vaiaoga-Ioasa | Stars: Neil Amituanai, Gloria Blake, Susana Fanueli, Valelia Ioane Votes: 161 create a new list Although aspects of the traditional culture have changed due to interactions with the West, many aspects of the Samoan way of life (fa’a Samoa) thrive today. Join over 300 organisations already creating a better workplace. New Zealand was ill-equipped to cope with the Western Samoa mandate it was allocated by the League of Nations in 1920. A combination of Christian beliefs and Samoan traditions underpin community life of the Samoan community in Australia. The vast majority of Samoans possess Polynesian heritage, with approximately 96% identifying as ethnically Samoan as of 2011.1 Another 2% identify with a mix of Samoan and New Zealand ancestry, while 1.9% identify with some other ethnicity.2 Samoan society is generally free of ethnic tension, largely as a result of homogeneity and a history of intermarriage that has blurred distinctive ethnic boundaries. Matai are also seen as spiritual caretakers of all those who fall under their authority. Thompson, Pausa Kaio. New Zealand's administration of Samoa, 1920-35. on the categories listed, the Cultural Atlas substitutes A new place is beckoning.But what do you know about Samoan culture and traditions? There tends to be a distinction between the urban and village areas in Samoa. Most of those who live in the cities like Apia often move to earn more money for their families and communities. For people who aren’t Matai, the position of the tatau can vary, with common places being on the arm. For men, the tatau is referred to as pe’a, which contains intricate geometrical patterns covering areas from the waist to the knees. essentially unchanged since 1962, New Zealand's immigration policy gives preferential treatment to Western Samoans and recognizes their valuable labor contribution. What remains constant is maintaining the family and links with the homeland. Respect, known in Samoan as ‘fa’aaloalo’ is highly valued. 1 Another 2% identify with a mix of Samoan and New Zealand ancestry, while 1.9% identify with some other ethnicity. In the 1960s and 1970s, this decidedly Polynesian identity included young Māori. Most Samoan-born migrants speak the Samoan language fluently. Previously known as Western Samoa up until 1997, Samoa gained independence from New Zealand in 1962 after more than a century of foreign influence. The exhibition 'Entangled Islands' chronicles the relationship between New Zealand and Samoa, the bad and better times, and how it's changed both countries. and Population Census. The status of Matai is highly respected among the community. Individuals in the aiga are expected to be generous with their possessions and prioritise the interests of the group or community over their own. Language: I’m Maori and moderately fluent in my own language, and I know a little simple everyday Samoan from my student days with Samoan flatmates. In rugby there are the 3 D's. For New Zealand-born Samoans, fluency is not important to identity; it is enough that they understand the language, communicate with their island-born family, and adopt their parents’ fa‘asamoa beliefs. Although some Samoan values and customs have changed since the country came into contact with Europe, Samoans continue to strive to preserve fa’a Samoa. Samoan is the third most-spoken language in New Zealand, behind English and Maori. For 1956, this meant that one out of every 30 persons born in Western Samoa was residing in New Zealand. Typically, it was only Matai who would possess a tatau. Samoan Death Rituals in New Zealand One of the most significant aspects of fa’asamoa that is carried out with ever-increasing vigour is a modified traditional pattern of funeral observances. tab at the bottom of the page, as well as the date this profile was published From there, the artist will design a tatau. Statistics describing the country’s Indeed, Samoan society tends to be meritocratic, whereby those with a recognised ability are often elected to the leadership of families and villages. New Zealanders, also called Kiwis, are a social people who believe in basic politeness and hospitality to all. Most Samoans have lived in coastal villages and continue to do so, with about four-fifths of the population located in rural areas. Ia e Ola Malamalama i lou Faasinomaga, A Comparative Study of the Faafafine of Samoa and the Whakawahine of Aotearoa-New Zealand. Young Samoans … Coconut Milk. There are strict rules against providing alcohol for people under that age. population in Australia is based on the 2016 Australian Housing Victoria University of Wellington. linguistic, religious and ethnic demographics are based on Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence. All text licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 New Zealand Licence unless otherwise stated. Another example is gagana fa’aaloalo, which refers to special vocabulary that is used when speaking respectfully, particularly when addressing a Matai. Samoan Language Week, she said, was important because of New Zealand's multi-cultural society. Others pick up Samoan through membership in the autalavou (church youth group). Many will socialise with their family and friends on a regular basis, particularly on Sundays after attending church services. New Zealand and Samoa continue to have a close relationship and share a vision for a prosperous and resilient Samoa with a skilled and healthy Samoan population. Once a part of traditional Samoan culture, the tatau is undergoing a strong revival in contemporary Samoa. Samoa is a group of islands located in the heart of Polynesia within the southern Pacific Ocean. Nonetheless, the fa’a Matai system persists as an integral part of fa’a Samoa. Christian missionaries in the 19th century attempted to eliminate the practice of tattooing from many Polynesian islands. Not every Samoan has the same understanding of the concept. Samoa lies approximately 80 miles (130 km) west of American Samoa, 1,800 miles (2,900 km) northeast of New Zealand, and 2,600 miles (4,200 km) southwest of Hawaii.Samoa, which shares the Samoan archipelago with American Samoa, consists of nine islands west of longitude 171° W—Upolu, Savai‘i, Manono, and Apolima, all of which are inhabited, and the uninhabited … The vast majority of Samoans possess Polynesian heritage, with approximately 96% identifying as ethnically Samoan as of 2011. Young people are expected to serve and show respect to elders, and can expect to receive love, protection, honour, a name to be proud of, and defence by the family when it is needed. Department of Home Affairs’ Community Information Summaries. It’s as … Cowley-Malcolm (2005)7found differences between parenting practices by Samoan parents born and bred in New Zealand and those born in Samoa. You can find a direct link to all these sources under the ‘References’ Most of the population speak Samoan, a language that is believed to be among the oldest of the Polynesian dialects. are out-dated, unavailable, unreliable, or the country’s The first is the high chief of the country, village or family – known as the Ali’i. Department of Home Affairs’ Community Information Summaries. Fa’a Samoa is holistic, meaning that Samoan culture is often understood as encompassing nearly all facets of life. You can do a lot of listening, thinking and singing on a Sunday spent immersed in Samoan religious culture. Fa’a Samoa celebrates traditional values, culture and environment. However, Samoans maintained the tradition. CIA World Factbook Quoted in M. Anae, ‘Fofoaivaoese: identity journeys of New Zealand-born Samoans.’ PhD thesis, University of Auckland, 1998. The importance of fa’aaloalo is evident in a number of ways. Rapid change is occurring within Samoan culture in New Zealand as second and third generations are born and raised here. Feuʻu, Poiva Junior Ashleigh. The central element in Samoan culture is the aiga (family). from the global estimates listed in the The concept of fa‘asamoa is essential to Samoan identity, and consists of a number of values and traditions: There are also the associated values of alofa (love), tautua (service), fa‘aaloalo (respect), feagaiga (a covenant between sibilings and others) and usita‘i (discipline). The fa‘asamoa practised in Samoa may differ from that in New Zealand. While most Samoans uphold rules and traditions underpinning fa’a Samoa, Samoan families living abroad may have a more relaxed approach towards cultural protocols. New Zealand born parents used less discipline and had ‘other’ ways of disciplining their children, like time out and withdrawal of privileges whereas Samoan born parents used swift, harsh punishment. Samoan is closely related to Maori, Tahitian, Hawaiian and Tongan languages. Since the introduction of a cash economy following contact with Europeans, the power of Matai has been reduced. Generally, there are two types of Matai, each with different duties. In the 1970s, educational programs sponsored by Australia increased the number of Samoans migrating. 1 defence, 2 discipline, and the 3rd one is the DAKKLE. For a long time, the Society of New Zealand was founded on the principles of equality and classlessness evidenced by the narrow gap between the rich and the poor. On the other hand, older members appreciate these concepts because they are now receiving tautua and fa‘aaloalo from their children and extended family. While it is not necessarily mutually intelligible with the other dialects, many words are identical or similar. , Traditionally, a tatau was a symbol of one’s status and social rank as well as a rite of passage from adolescence to adulthood. Most Samoan-born migrants speak the Samoan language fluently. Land. Combining elements of their parents’ customs and society with urban influences, this is a new culture with a distinctive patois, music, fashion and customs. Please provide your email to receive your eBook download and receipt. For example, people tend to be communal and share their goods rather than prizing their individual ownership. Now that you are shifting gears and will be transforming yourself to live amidst a new environment would it not help if you acquired knowledge about the Samoan traditions, popular arts and crafts, Samoan food delicacies and the overa… The Census of 1921 lists 164 persons in New Zealand who were born in Western Samoa 1; the 1945 Census lists 592 2 and that of 1956 lists 2,995 3—an expansion from 1945 to 1956 of the order of 5. While village and city life differ in terms of work and lifestyle, there are general similarities across both settings. In 1997 the island nation officially shortened its name to Samoa. Teuila is a symbol of Samoan culture and is commemorated through the Teuila Festival, one of Samoa’s most celebrated annual events. The role of a Matai is based on one’s ability to serve those around them rather than seek prestige. The Ali’i are often understood as ‘sitting chiefs’ because they are typically responsible for the most important aspects of Samoan culture and are generally the decision-makers. Fa’a Samoa - the Samoan way – is a way of life that stretches back more than 3,000 years and is reflected in every aspect of Samoa’s communal society. Samoans are typically friendly and warm people who offer smiles to those they meet. For women, the tatau is called malu and it covers the legs from the upper thighs to the knees. Commercial re-use may be allowed on request. Because their parents do not understand English, those New Zealand-born Samoans who speak Samoan fluently are often obliged to speak Samoan in the home. All other statistical information on the demographics of the migrant (indicating when these statistics were last updated). its most recent national census. For example, youth are expected to defer to elders and those of higher status. Matai are expected to ensure the family or village is self-sufficient and well-nourished, as well as maintaining social order among all members. Money, prayers, support, food, material goods, and even relatives themselves, circulate within families around the world – wherever Samoan people live and work. Samoan language and culture is being celebrated in the country this week under the slogan "Keep your identity alive to thrive." The Samoan language is a cherished symbol of cultural identity for many Samoans. © Crown Copyright. Samoan culture is governed by various protocols and etiquette (see the Etiquette section), all in accordance with core values within fa’a Samoa such as family, language, the environment, genealogy, the arts (including tattooing) and political and social structures. the most recent global estimates cited in the CIA World Factbook. After occupying German Samoa at the outbreak of the First World War, the New Zealand administration was blamed for mishandling the 1918 influenza pandemic, which killed more than one-fifth of the … 2013. The Samoans are a Polynesian people closely related to the native peoples of New Zealand, French Polynesia, Hawaii, and Tonga. A 2002 article from ESPN estimated that a Samoan male (either an American Samoan, or a Samoan living in the 50 United States) is 40 times more likely to play in the NFL than a non-Samoan American. However, a number of the children born or raised in New Zealand do not speak Samoan, although they can understand it. Various values that underpin daily interactions are considered to be a part of fa’a Samoa. The individual will tell the tufuga about themselves, their family and their ancestry. The main sports played in Samoa are rugby union and Samoan cricket (kilikiti). 2013. Within the family, giving and receiving tautua (service), fa‘aaloalo (respect) and alofa (love) are crucial in Samoan social relations. In 2013, 56% of people of Samoan ethnicity could speak Samoan (down from 64% in 2001), although only about 40% were born in Samoa. Taulapapa McMullin, Dan. For example, many Samoan families wake up early and begin the day with a prayer, followed by preparation for their work or school day. Closely related to the role of the Ali’i is the Taupou. 2017. Most people will visit a local tufuga (tattoo artist) in their early adult years to gain their tatau. Religion is a cornerstone of Samoan culture and attending a local Sunday church service is a memorable experience. statistical department does not formally gather information All non-text content is subject to specific conditions. By 2026, it is projected that New Zealand’s Pacific population will increase to 480,000 people and by 2038 will number 650,000 (Statistics New Zealand, 2015b). The sharing of one’s ancestry is important to many, as Samoans often perceive their identity through their family and genealogies. ‘Tatau’ refers to tattoos or the art of tattooing. “In 1970s New Zealand, six-year-old Ioane Tafioka, a fresh off the boat from the island of Samoa, moves in next door to six-year-old Niuen kid Peter Burton.” (Eventfinder) They begin an unlikely friendship that will change their lives. University of Arizona Press. In this system, society is organised by extended families (aiga), with each family having its own ‘Matai’ (‘chief’ or ‘leader’) titles that are connected to certain districts, villages and plots of family land. The Samoan way of life, or fa‘a Samoa, is… Contemporary Samoan culture, music, dance and art continue to gain popularity throughout the Pacific Islands and around the world more broadly. Matai tend to gain status and influence through accumulating resources as well as their ability to mobilise and redistribute them. For many, living in the city is temporary as they often intend to return to their village later. New Zealand's first act of the First World War, the taking of Samoa from the Germans in 1914, and the legacy of this, has been commemorated at the Auckland War Museum. The process of creating a tatau is often prolonged and painful, sometimes taking a few months to complete. These plays helped distinguish the growing tensions the Samoans had between the New Zealanders. While the nuances of the Matai system are difficult to articulate, the title of Matai is generally passed down from parent to child or given based on the view that the recipient will best serve the family or village. The figure of the total population of each country is drawn Many times our Pacific, especially Samoan names, are mis-pronounced. For them, proficiency in the language distinguishes those who are truly Samoan. The term ‘fa’a Samoa’ translates into English as ‘the Samoan Way’. For example, Samoans abroad will often send remittances to family members in Samoa as a way to maintain family connections and respect for one another. younger than the median age of the New Zealand population (Statistics New Zealand, 2014. For many, adhering to fa’a Samoa is closely associated with honouring one’s family. While these meanings continue today, tattooing is also often seen in contemporary Samoan society as a sign of dedication and pride towards one’s family, regardless of their status in society. unless otherwise stated. Adhering to fa’a Samoa brings a sense of pride and respect as well as social cohesion within the Samoan community. Do you mean the people or their languages? The newly formed United Nations extended New Zealand's mandate until January 1, 1962, when Western Samoa, or Samoa i Sisifo as the Samoans called it, became the first independent Polynesian nation. The author argues that emigration Although the earlier culture of the Māori displayed social stratification, the classes relatively disappeared with influence and interaction with other cultures. Memoirs of a Samoan, Catholic, and Fa'afafine. Fa’a Samoa refers to a complex cultural code that guides and teaches individuals on how to lead their life. 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