), etc. theol. Since, according to Luther, concupiscence, of which death alone shall free us, constitutes the essence of original sin, all our actions are corrupted by it. x-xxvii; Einig in Kirchenlex., s.v. 48: "It is settled beyond question that our justice is to be sought wholly outside of ourselves and that it consists entirely in our Lord Jesus Christ." Sin is merely cloaked and concealed by the imputed merits of Christ; God no longer imputes it, whilst in reality it continues under cover its miserable existence till the hour of death. For, even if it is not the formal cause of justification (causa formalis), it is nevertheless its true exemplar (causa exemplaris), inasmuch as the soul receives a sanctity in imitation of God's own holiness. vii), moreover, did not neglect to enumerate in detail the other causes of justification: the glory of God and of Christ as the final cause (causa finalis), the mercy of God as the efficient cause (causa efficiens), the Passion of Christ as the meritorious cause (causa meritoria), the reception of the Sacraments as the instrumental cause (causa instrumentalis). For this reason the Lutheran formularies of belief lay great stress on the doctrine that our entire righteousness does not intrinsically belong to us, but is something altogether exterior. Declar. Cf. Finally the Lutheran Church of Scandinavia has in the course of time experienced a "quiet reformation", inasmuch as it now, without being fully conscious of the fact, defends the Catholic doctrine on justification (cf. real obliteration of sin by means of sanctification, there is a whole series of other effects: beauty of the soul, friendship with God, and Divine adoption. Of late, however, Catholic exegetes have become more and more convinced that the Epistle in question, so remarkable for its insisting on the necessity of good works, neither aimed at correcting the false interpretations of St. Paul’s doctrine, nor had any relation to the teaching of the Apostle of the Gentiles. Looking at the doctrine of justification as understood by the Protestant theologian Karl Barth in comparison to classic Roman Catholic theology, Kung found that the two had similar ideas about the main elements of justification. Paulus u. St. Jacobus and die Rechtfertigung”, Freiburg, 1897). Trid., VIII, iv, 18) tells us that all the bishops present at the council fully realized how important it was to explain St. Paul's saying that man is justified through faith. The Catholic Encyclopedia. I came across a document called “Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification” which seems to suggest that the Church has changed its teaching on justification by faith and works and is converging with Lutheran view of justification. . James, ii, 17 sqq.). Of late, Fathers Denifle and Weiss have shown that Martin Luther was acquainted almost exclusively with the theology of these Nominalists, which he naturally and justly found repugnant, and that the "Summa" of St. Thomas and the works of other great theologians were practically unknown to him. But what probably contributed most of all to the crumbling of the system was the rapid growth of Socinianism and Rationalism which during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries gained so many adherents among the Lutherans. For this reason the Lutheran formularies of belief lay great stress on the doctrine that our entire righteousness does not intrinsically belong to us, but is something altogether exterior. The theological quarrel soon proved very annoying to both parties and the desire for peace became universal. Justification denotes that change or transformation in the soul by which man is transferred from the state of original sin, in which as a child of Adam he was born, to that of grace and Divine sonship through Jesus Christ, the second Adam, our Redeemer (I. c., cap. Since these qualities of justification are also qualities of sanctifying grace, see GRACE. In the same article is given an explanation of the supernatural accompaniments—the three theological virtues, the moral virtues, the seven gifts, and the personal indwelling of the Holy Ghost. i: "Liberum arbitrium minime extinctum, viribus licet attenuatum et inclinatum"). Sin is merely cloaked and concealed by the imputed merits of Christ; God no longer imputes it, whilst in reality it continues under cover its miserable existence till the hour of death. For if it be essential to fiduciary faith that it infallibly assures the sinner of his own justification, it cannot mean anything but a firm conviction of the actual possession of grace. in the Kingdom of Saxony and the State of Missouri, alone continues to cling tenaciously to a system, which otherwise would have slowly fallen into oblivion. zu der Frage nach dem Wesen der heilignachenden Gnade (Paderborn, 1910). and Professor Scheeben ("Dogmatik", II, sec. “The Half-Melanchtonians” had succeeded in smuggling Synergism into the “Book of Torgau” (1576); but before the “Formulary of Concord” was printed in the monastery of Bergen (near Magdeburg, 1557), the article in question was eliminated as heterodox and the harsh doctrine of Luther substituted in the symbols of the Lutheran Church. Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. let him be anathema"). . ", XII, ii); Petavius ("De Trinit. Without your knowing He made you, with your willing He justifies you, but it is He who justifies, that the justice be not your own" (Serm. Justification in Roman Catholic Doctrine Roman Catholicism blends its doctrines of sanctification and justification. fur Theol. Nevertheless it was not a healthy reaction against Nominalism, but Luther's own state of conscience that caused his change of views. Since our Divine adoption and friendship with God is based on perfect love of God or charity (cf. This volume presents the official Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, commonly known as the JDDJ, signed by The Lutheran World Federation and the Roman Catholic Church in 1999. Loosely, it means getting right with God. (Cf. Regarding St. Augustine's doctrine cf. These, as freely bestowed gifts of God, cannot be regarded as formal effects of justification. In the article on GRACE these are described as formal effects of sanctifying grace. real obliteration of sin by means of sanctification, there is a whole series of other effects: beauty of the soul, friendship with God, and Divine adoption. Against this dark and desolate background there stands out the more clearly the mercy of God, who for the sake of the Redeemer’s merits lovingly offers to despairing man a righteousness (justitia) already complete in itself, namely the exterior righteousness of God or of Christ. In general it was precisely the denial of man's free will in the moral order, and of the impossibility of his full cooperation with Divine grace that repelled so many followers of Luther. Vol. Of late, however, Catholic exegetes have become more and more convinced that the Epistle in question, so remarkable for its insisting on the necessity of good works, neither aimed at correcting the false interpretations of St. Paul's doctrine, nor had any relation to the teaching of the Apostle of the Gentiles. Cardinal Pallavicini (Hist. Möhler, “Symbolik”,§16.) The Council of Trent assigns the first and most important place to faith, which is styled "the beginning, foundation and root of all justification" (Trent, l.c., cap.viii). iv: “Justificatio impii… translatio ab eo statu, in quo homo nascitur filius primi Adae, in statum gratiae et adoptionis filiorum Dei per secundum Adam, Jesum Christum, Salvatorem nostrum”). Solid. In Christian theology, justification is God's righteous act of removing the condemnation, guilt, and penalty of sin, by grace, while, at the same time, declaring the ungodly to be righteous, through faith in Christ's atoning sacrifice.. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Augustinus", II, Freiburg, 1909, pp. 9-11): uncertainty (incertitudo), inequality (inaequalitas), amissibility (ammisibilitas). We have an authentic explanation of the Catholic doctrine in the famous "Decretum de justificatione" of the Sixth Session (13 Jan., 1547) of the Council of Trent, which in sixteen chapters (cf. If, moreover, the sinner be justified, not by an interior righteousness capable of increase or decrease, but through God's sanctity eternally the same, it is evident that all the just from the common mortal to the Apostles and the Blessed Virgin Mary possess one and the same degree of righteousness and sanctity. by Fr. 105, 117) admits that neither the Church in her official teaching nor the majority of her theologians ever sanctioned, much less adopted, the extreme views of the Nominalists. 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